Before we had high-resolution observations of the Sun, explanations for sunspots ranged from the ridiculous to the sublime.
Lunar rocks retain a million-year record of solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays.
Without her, the Hubble Space Telescope may not have gotten off the ground.
Computing celestial alignments may be routine today, but for medieval astronomers it was a major undertaking.
How the event helped a 14th Century astronomer reconnect with Ptolemy’s era.